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The Complexity of Secondary Cascade Consequent to Traumatic Brain Injury: Pathobiology and Potential Treatments

Author(s):

Nidhi Khatri, Bommaraju Sumadhura, Sandeep Kumar, Ravinder Kumar Kaundal, Sunil Sharma and Ashok Kumar Datusalia*   Pages 1 - 28 ( 28 )

Abstract:


According to the World Health Organization, Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the major cause of death and disability and will surpass the other diseases by the year 2020. Patients who suffer TBI face many difficulties which negatively affect their social and personal life. TBI patients suffer from changes in mood, impulsivity, poor social judgment and memory deficits. Both open and closed head injuries have their own consequences. Open head injury associated problems are specific in nature e.g. loss of motor functions whereas closed head injuries are diffused in nature like poor memory, problems in concentration etc. Brain injury may have a detrimental effect on the biochemical processes responsible for the homeostatic and physiological disturbances in the brain. Although significant research has been done in order to decrease the overall TBI-related mortality, many individuals suffer from a life-long disability. In this article, we have discussed the causes of TBI, its consequence and the pathobiology of secondary injury. We have also tried to discuss the evidence-based strategies which are shown to decline the devastating consequences of TBI.

Keywords:

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), pathology of brain injuries, secondary cascade, excitotoxicity, inflammation, pharmacological therapy.

Affiliation:

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar , Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER) Raebareli, UP , National Brain Research Centre, Gurugram, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar , Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER) Raebareli, UP



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