Sheng Chen*, PengLei Xu, YuanJian Fang and Cameron Lenahan Pages 1266 - 1278 ( 13 )
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a type of hemorrhagic stroke associated with high mortality and morbidity. The blood-brain-barrier (BBB) is a structure consisting primarily of cerebral microvascular endothelial cells, end feet of astrocytes, extracellular matrix, and pericytes. Post-SAH pathophysiology included early brain injury and delayed cerebral ischemia. BBB disruption was a critical mechanism of early brain injury and was associated with other pathophysiological events. These pathophysiological events may propel the development of secondary brain injury, known as delayed cerebral ischemia. Imaging advancements to measure BBB after SAH primarily focused on exploring innovative methods to predict clinical outcome, delayed cerebral ischemia, and delayed infarction related to delayed cerebral ischemia in acute periods. These predictions are based on detecting abnormal changes in BBB permeability. The parameters of BBB permeability are described by changes in computed tomography (CT) perfusion and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Kep seems to be a stable and sensitive indicator in CT perfusion, whereas Ktrans is a reliable parameter for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Future prediction models that utilize both the volume of BBB disruption and stable parameters of BBB may be a promising direction to develop practical clinical tools. These tools could provide greater accuracy in predicting clinical outcome and risk of deterioration. Therapeutic interventional exploration targeting BBB disruption is also promising, considering the extended duration of post-SAH BBB disruption.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage, blood brain barrier, imaging, clinical trial, early brain injury, delayed cerebral ischemia.
Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, Burrell College of Osteopathic Medicine, Las Cruces, NM