Carla Petrella*, Stefano Farioli-Vecchioli, Giusy Ylenia Cisale, Georgios Strimpakos, John Joseph Borg, Mauro Ceccanti, Marco Fiore*, Giovanni Monteleone and Robert Nisticò Pages 610 - 628 ( 19 )
A large body of research has shown the presence of a complex pathway of communications between the gut and the brain. It is now recognized that, through this pathway, the microbiota can influence brain homeostasis and plasticity under normal and pathological conditions.
This review aims at providing an overview of preclinical and clinical pieces of evidence supporting the possible role of gut-brain axis modulation in physiological aging, in a neurodevelopmental disorder, the autism spectrum disorders and in a substance abuse disorder, the alcohol addiction.
Since the normalization of gut flora can prevent changes in the behavior, we postulate that the gutbrain axis might represent a possible target for pharmacological and dietary strategies aimed at improving not only intestinal but also mental health. The present review also reports some regulatory considerations regarding the use of probiotics, illustrating the most debated issues about the possibility of considering probiotics not only as a food supplement but also as a “full” medicinal product.
Gut-brain axis, aging, alcohol, autism, brain disorders, preclinical and clinical studies, regulatory aspects.
Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, IBBC, CNR, Policlinico Umberto I, Rome, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, IBBC, CNR, Monterotondo, Rome, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology “V. Erspamer”, Sapienza University of Rome, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, IBBC, CNR, Monterotondo, Rome, Malta Medicines Authority, Malta Life Sciences Park, San Gwann SGN 3000, Malta; School of Pharmacy, University of Tor Vergata, Rome, Centro Riferimento Alcologico Regione Lazio, ASL ROMA 1, Rome, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, IBBC, CNR, Policlinico Umberto I, Rome, Department of Systems Medicine, University of Tor Vergata, Rome, Laboratory of Pharmacology of Synaptic Plasticity, Fondazione EBRI Rita Levi Montalcini, Rome