Submit Manuscript  

Article Details


The Links between Cardiovascular Diseases and Alzheimer's Disease

[ Vol. 19 , Issue. 2 ]

Author(s):

Jerzy Leszek*, Elizaveta V. Mikhaylenko, Dmitrii M. Belousov, Efrosini Koutsouraki, Katarzyna Szczechowiak, Małgorzata Kobusiak-Prokopowicz, Andrzej Mysiak, Breno Satler Diniz, Siva G. Somasundaram, Cecil E. Kirkland and Gjumrakch Aliev*   Pages 152 - 169 ( 18 )

Abstract:


The root cause of non-inherited Alzheimer’s disease (AD) remains unknown despite hundreds of research studies performed to attempt to solve this problem. Since proper prophylaxis remains the best strategy, many scientists have studied the risk factors that may affect AD development. There is robust evidence supporting the hypothesis that cardiovascular diseases (CVD) may contribute to AD progression, as the diseases often coexist. Therefore, a lack of well-defined diagnostic criteria makes studying the relationship between AD and CVD complicated. Additionally, inflammation accompanies the pathogenesis of AD and CVD, and is not only a consequence but also implicated as a significant contributor to the course of the diseases. Of note, АроЕε4 is found to be one of the major risk factors affecting both the cardiovascular and nervous systems. According to genome wide association and epidemiological studies, numerous common risk factors have been associated with the development of AD-related pathology. Furthermore, the risk of developing AD and CVDs appears to be increased by a wide range of conditions and lifestyle factors: hypertension, dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, gut/oral microbiota, physical activity, and diet. This review summarizes the literature and provides possible mechanistic links between CVDs and AD.

Keywords:

Alzheimer’s disease, cardiovascular disease, vascular risk factors, dementia, neuroinflammation, АроЕ.

Affiliation:

Department of Psychiatry, Wrocław Medical University, Ul. Pasteura 10, 50-367, Wroclaw, I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation (Sechenov University), 8/2 Trubetskaya Str., Moscow, 119991, I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation (Sechenov University), 8/2 Trubetskaya Str., Moscow, 119991, 1 st Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University Campus, 54124 Thessaloniki, Department of Psychiatry, Wrocław Medical University, Ul. Pasteura 10, 50-367, Wroclaw, Department of Cardiology, Wrocław Medical University, Ul. Pasteura 10, 50-367, Wroclaw, Department of Cardiology, Wrocław Medical University, Ul. Pasteura 10, 50-367, Wroclaw, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, McGovern Medical School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, Department of Biological Sciences, Salem University, Salem, WV, Department of Biological Sciences, Salem University, Salem, WV, I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation (Sechenov University), 8/2 Trubetskaya Str., Moscow, 119991

Graphical Abstract:



Read Full-Text article