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Dysregulation of the Gut-Brain Axis, Dysbiosis and Influence of Numerous Factors on Gut Microbiota Associated Parkinson’s Disease

[ Vol. 19 , Issue. 2 ]

Author(s):

Gagandeep Kaur, Tapan Behl*, Simona Bungau, Arun Kumar, Md. Sahab Uddin, Vineet Mehta, Gokhan Zengin, Bijo Mathew, Muhammad Ajmal Shah and Sandeep Arora   Pages 233 - 247 ( 15 )

Abstract:


Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) has been one of the substantial social, medical concerns and, burdens of the present time. PD is a gradually devastating neurodegenerative disorder of the neurological function marked with α-synucleinopathy affecting numerous regions of the brain-gut axis, as well as the central, enteric, and autonomic nervous system. Its etiology is a widely disputed topic.

Objective: This review emphasizes to find out the correlation among the microbial composition and the observable disturbances in the metabolites of the microbial species and its impact on the immune response, which may have a concrete implication on the occurrence, persistence and, pathophysiology of PD via the gut-brain axis.

Methods: An in-depth research and the database was developed from the available peer-reviewed articles to date (March 2020) utilizing numerous search engines like PubMed, MEDLINE and, other internet sources.

Results: Progressively increasing shreds of evidence have proved the fact that dysbiosis in the gut microbiome plays a central role in many neurological disorders, such as PD. Indeed, a disordered microbiome-gut-brain axis in PD could be focused on gastrointestinal afflictions that manifest primarily several years prior to the diagnosis, authenticating a concept wherein the pathological pathway progresses from the intestine reaching the brain.

Conclusion: The microbiota greatly affects the bidirectional interaction between the brain and the gut via synchronized neurological, immunological, and neuroendocrine mechanisms. It can be concluded that a multitude of factors discussed in this review steadily induce the onset of dysbacteriosis that may exacerbate the etiologic mechanism of Parkinson’s disease.

Keywords:

Gut microbiota, parkinson’s disease, gastrointestinal tract, α-synuclein, TLRs, gut-brain axis.

Affiliation:

Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Punjab, Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Punjab, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, Oradea, Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Punjab, Department of Pharmacy, Southeast University, Dhaka, Government College of Pharmacy, Shimla, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Selcuk Uniersity Campus, Konya, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Ahalia School of Pharmacy, Palakkad, Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Government College University, Faisalabad, Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Punjab

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