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A Comprehensive Review of Alzheimer’s Association with Related Proteins: Pathological Role and Therapeutic Significance

[ Vol. 18 , Issue. 8 ]

Author(s):

Deepak Kumar, Aditi Sharma and Lalit Sharma*   Pages 674 - 695 ( 22 )

Abstract:


Alzheimer’s is an insidious, progressive, chronic neurodegenerative disease which causes the devastation of neurons. Alzheimer's possesses complex pathologies of heterogeneous nature counting proteins as one major factor along with enzymes and mutated genes. Proteins such as amyloid precursor protein (APP), apolipoprotein E (ApoE), presenilin, mortalin, calbindin-D28K, creactive protein, heat shock proteins (HSPs), and prion protein are some of the chief elements in the foremost hypotheses of AD like amyloid-beta (Aβ) cascade hypothesis, tau hypothesis, cholinergic neuron damage, etc. Disturbed expression of these proteins results in synaptic dysfunction, cognitive impairment, memory loss, and neuronal degradation. On the therapeutic ground, attempts of developing anti-amyloid, anti-inflammatory, anti-tau therapies are on peak, having APP and tau as putative targets. Some proteins, e.g., HSPs, which ameliorate oxidative stress, calpains, which help in regulating synaptic plasticity, and calmodulin-like skin protein (CLSP) with its neuroprotective role are few promising future targets for developing anti-AD therapies. On diagnostic grounds of AD C-reactive protein, pentraxins, collapsin response mediator protein-2, and growth-associated protein-43 represent the future of new possible biomarkers for diagnosing AD. The last few decades were concentrated over identifying and studying protein targets of AD. Here, we reviewed the physiological/pathological roles and therapeutic significance of nearly all the proteins associated with AD that addresses putative as well as probable targets for developing effective anti-AD therapies.

Keywords:

Alzheimer`s, neurodegeneration, proteins, pathological role, therapeutics.

Affiliation:

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shoolini University, Solan, H.P., School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shoolini University, Solan, H.P., School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shoolini University, Solan, H.P.



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