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Alzheimer’s Disorder: Epigenetic Connection and Associated Risk Factors

[ Vol. 18 , Issue. 8 ]

Author(s):

Vivek Kumar Sharma, Vineet Mehta and Thakur Gurjeet Singh*   Pages 740 - 753 ( 14 )

Abstract:


The gene based therapeutics and drug targets have shown incredible and appreciable advances in alleviating human sufferings and complexities. Epigenetics simply means above genetics or which controls the organism beyond genetics. At present it is very clear that all characteristics of an individual are not determined by DNA alone, rather the environment, stress, life style and nutrition play a vital part in determining the response of an organism. Thus, nature (genetic makeup) and nurture (exposure) play equally important roles in the responses observed, both at the cellular and organism levels. Epigenetics influence plethora of complications at cellular and molecular levels that includes cancer, metabolic and cardiovascular complications including neurological (psychosis) and neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson disease etc.). The epigenetic mechanisms include DNA methylation, histone modification and non coding RNA which have substantial impact on progression and pathways linked to Alzheimer’s disease. The epigenetic mechanism gets deregulated in Alzheimer’s disease and is characterized by DNA hyper methylation, deacetylation of histones and general repressed chromatin state which alter gene expression at the transcription level by upregulation, downregulation or silencing of genes. Thus, the processes or modulators of these epigenetic processes have shown vast potential as a therapeutic target in Alzheimer’s disease.

Keywords:

Alzheimer`s disease, epigenetics, amyloid β, DNA methylation, histone, non coding RNA.

Affiliation:

Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Punjab, Govt. College of Pharmacy, Rohru, District Shimla, Himachal Pradesh-171207, Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Punjab



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