Sumit Jamwal and Puneet Kumar* Pages 165 - 175 ( 11 )
Alteration in neurotransmitters signaling in basal ganglia has been consistently shown to significantly contribute to the pathophysiological basis of Parkinsonâ€™s disease and Huntingtonâ€™s disease. Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter which plays a critical role in coordinated body movements. Alteration in the level of brain dopamine and receptor radically contributes to irregular movements, glutamate mediated excitotoxic neuronal death and further leads to imbalance in the levels of other neurotransmitters viz. GABA, adenosine, acetylcholine and endocannabinoids. This review is based upon the data from clinical and preclinical studies to characterize the role of various striatal neurotransmitters in the pathogenesis of Parkinsonâ€™s disease and Huntingtonâ€™s disease. Further, we have collected data of altered level of various neurotransmitters and their metabolites and receptor density in basal ganglia region. Although the exact mechanisms underlying neuropathology of movement disorders are not fully understood, but several mechanisms related to neurotransmitters alteration, excitotoxic neuronal death, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation are being put forward. Restoring neurotransmitters level and downstream signaling has been considered to be beneficial in the treatment of Parkinsonâ€™s disease and Huntingtonâ€™s disease. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify more specific drugs and drug targets that can restore the altered neurotransmitters level in brain and prevent/delay neurodegeneration.
Movement disorders, neurotransmitters, striatum, dopamine, glutamate, GABA, adenosine, acetylcholine.
School of Pharmacy and Emerging Sciences, Baddi University of Emerging Sciences & Technology, Baddi, Solan, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Maharaja Ranjit Singh Punjab Technical University, Bathinda, Panjab