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Autophagy after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Can Cell Death be Good?

[ Vol. 16 , Issue. 9 ]

Author(s):

Wing-Mann Ho*, Onat Akyol, Haley Reis, Cesar Reis, Devin McBride, Claudius Thome and John Zhang   Pages 1314 - 1319 ( 6 )

Abstract:


Background: Autophagy is a prosurvival, reparative process that maintainsww cellular homeostasis through lysosomal degradation of selected cytoplasmic components and programmed death of old, dysfunctional, or unnecessary cytoplasmic entities. According to growing evidence, autophagy shows beneficial effects following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). SAH is considered one of the most devastating forms of stroke.

Methods: In this review lies in revealing the pathophysiological pathways and the effects of autophagy. Current results from animal studies will be discussed focusing on the effects of inhibitors and inducers of autophagy. In addition, this review discusses the clinical translation of potential neuropharmacological targets that can help prevent early brain injury (EBI) following SAH by incorporating programmed cell death into clinical management.

Results: Published data showed that autophagy mechanisms have a prosurvival effect to reduce apoptotic cell death after SAH. However, if SAH exceeds a certain stress threshold, autophagy mechanisms lead to increased apoptotic cell death, more brain injury, and worse outcome.

Conclusion: Future investigation on the differences and molecular switches between protective mechanisms of autophagy and excessive “self-eating” autophagy leading to cell death is needed to achieve more insight into the complex pathophysiology of brain injury after SAH. If autophagy after SAH can be controlled to lead to beneficial effects only, as the physiological self-control mechanism, this could be an important target for treatment.

Keywords:

Subarachnoid hemorrhage, autophagy, cell death, autophagosome, lysosome, neuroprotection, brain injury.

Affiliation:

Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, Department of Preventive Medicine, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda

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