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Therapeutic Strategies for Treatment of Inflammation-related Depression

[ Vol. 16 , Issue. 2 ]

Author(s):

Miroslav Adzic*, Zeljka Brkic, Milos Mitic, Ester Francija, Milica J. Jovicic, Jelena Radulovic and Nadja P. Maric   Pages 176 - 209 ( 34 )

Abstract:


Background: Mounting evidence demonstrates enhanced systemic levels of inflammatory mediators in depression, indicating that inflammation may play a role in the etiology and course of mood disorders. Indeed, proinflammatory cytokines induce a behavioral state of conservation- withdrawal resembling human depression, characterized by negative mood, fatigue, anhedonia, psychomotor retardation, loss of appetite, and cognitive deficits. Neuroinflammation also contributes to non-responsiveness to current antidepressant (AD) therapies. Namely, response to conventional AD medications is associated with a decrease in inflammatory biomarkers, whereas resistance to treatment is accompanied by increased inflammation.

Methods: In this review, we will discuss the utility and shortcomings of pharmacologic AD treatment strategies focused on inflammatory pathways, applied alone or as an adjuvant component to current AD therapies.

Results: Mechanisms of cytokine actions on behavior involve activation of inflammatory pathways in the brain, resulting in changes of neurotransmitter metabolism, neuroendocrine function, and neuronal plasticity. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors exhibit the most beneficial effects in restraining the inflammation markers in depression. Different anti-inflammatory agents exhibit AD effects via modulating neurotransmitter systems, neuroplasticity markers and glucocorticoid receptor signaling. Anti-inflammatory add-on therapy in depression highlights such treatment as a candidate for enhancement strategy in patients with moderate-to-severe depression.

Conclusion: The interactions between the immune system and CNS are not only involved in shaping behavior, but also in responding to therapeutics. Even though, substantial evidence from animal and human research support a beneficial effect of anti-inflammatory add-on therapy in depression, further research with special attention on safety, particularly during prolonged periods of antiinflammatory co-treatments, is required.

Keywords:

Depression, inflammation, anti-inflammatory drugs, antidepressants, treatment, side effects.

Affiliation:

Department of Molecular Biology and Endocrinology, VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Department of Molecular Biology and Endocrinology, VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Department of Molecular Biology and Endocrinology, VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Department of Molecular Biology and Endocrinology, VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Clinic for Psychiatry, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Pasterova 2, 11000, Belgrade, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, The Asher Center of Study and Treatment of Depressive Disorders, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, Clinic for Psychiatry, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Pasterova 2, 11000, Belgrade

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