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Resilience Dysregulation in Major Depressive Disorder: Focus on Glutamatergic Imbalance and Microglial Activation

[ Vol. 16 , Issue. 3 ]

Author(s):

Gislaine Z. Reus*, Airam B. de Moura, Ritele H. Silva, Wilson R. Resende and Joao Quevedo   Pages 297 - 307 ( 11 )

Abstract:


Background: Many studies have been shown an important role of glutamatergic system as well microglial activation in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). In humans most resistant to the development of psychiatric disorders, including MDD, are observed a greater degree of resilience resulting from stress. Less resilience is associated with neuroendocrine and neuroinflammatory markers, as well as with glutamatergic system dysregulation. Thus, this review we highlighted findings from literature identifying the function of glutamatergic system, microglial activation and inflammation in resilience.

Methods: We conducted a review of computerized databases from 1970 to 2017.

Results: There is an association between microglial activation and glutamatergic system activation with stress vulnerability and resilience.

Conclusions: Glutamate neurotransmission, including neurotransmitter synthesis, signalling, and glutamate receptor functions and expression all seem to be involved with both stress vulnerability and resilience. Moreover, inflammation and microglial activation mediate individual differences in resilience and the risk of stress-induced MDD.

Keywords:

Glutamatergic system, AMPA receptor, NMDA receptor, microglia, neuroinflammation, resilience, stress vulnerability, major depressive disorder.

Affiliation:

Laboratory of Neurosciences, Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Health Sciences Unit, University of Southern Santa Catarina (UNESC), Criciuma, SC, Laboratory of Neurosciences, Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Health Sciences Unit, University of Southern Santa Catarina (UNESC), Criciuma, SC, Laboratory of Neurosciences, Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Health Sciences Unit, University of Southern Santa Catarina (UNESC), Criciuma, SC, Laboratory of Neurosciences, Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Health Sciences Unit, University of Southern Santa Catarina (UNESC), Criciuma, SC, Laboratory of Neurosciences, Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Health Sciences Unit, University of Southern Santa Catarina (UNESC), Criciuma, SC

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